Another crucial factor here is lack of police oversight. The BPD kept its stingray use secret for years, relying on a nondisclosure agreement with the FBI. As a result, the public couldn?t scrutinize how the technology was deployed. And the recent Justice Department report refers to ?systemic deficiencies in BPD?s policies, training, supervision, and accountability structures that fail to equip officers with the tools they need to police effectively and within the bounds of the federal law ? leading directly to a broad spectrum of constitutional and statutory violations.? In other words, the Baltimore Police Department seems to be operating at its own discretion. Widespread use of surveillance may not be so much a massive government conspiracy as it is a result of a deeply conflicted and burdened department trying to find ways?constitutional or not?to do its job.